Some potentially useful chemical materials and synthesis


(Donzil Zenovka) #21

PX that Mr.CHEN is referring to is also known as p-Xylene or Paraxylene and is a component used in the production of PET food grade plastic and polyester.

It is thought to cause damage to abdominal organs and the nervous system when inhaled or absorbed through the skin.
Symptoms are similar to common chemical contact, resulting in headaches, nausea, drowsiness, redness to skin and burning sensations and irritation among others.

Long term contact effects of exposure to skin results in removal of fat from skin, I’m guessing similar to lye. It can also result in central nervous system degradation, damage to human development and reproductive systems.

Basically it acts like most other harmful chemicals on the human body. Not saying it’s super dangerous but it’s hardly benign either.

(Mr.CHEN) #22

I don’t want to discuss controversial events. It’s meaningless. I just say that what this substance has caused and those apparently alarmist rumors. After all, chemical production does bring about certain dangers and pollution. But some people use this matter to hype and even despise their own country by making rumors in an attempt to interrupt the development of chemical industry in their own country, which has obvious problems. We’d better not discuss social and political issues here.
It’s better not to get off the point, but to make some suggestions about explosives today:
TNT: The vanilla TNT is not a “real” TNT because it uses black gunpowder (a mixture of nitrite, sulfur and carbon). The real TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) is nitrated with toluene, like the nitroglycerin synthesis, toluene+sulfuric acid+nitric acid, like GT5.
Picric acid (2,4,6 trinitrophenol): It has similar explosive power as TNT, but its use is limited by corrosion and instability caused by acidity. In reality, direct nitration of phenol can easily lead to oxidation. Generally, sulfonation with concentrated sulfuric acid, nitration with mixed acid and desulfurization with dilute sulfuric acid are used to synthesize picric acid.
Hexagon(RDX,Cyclotrimethylenetrinitroamine): A relatively common military explosive that can be made into C4 plastic explosive with plastic agent, also occurs in some terrorist attacks. Urotropine (hexamethylenetetramine) can be obtained by reacting with nitric acid, and Urotropine can be obtained by reacting with formaldehyde and ammonia. Urotropine, nitric acid, ammonium nitrate and acetic anhydride can also be synthesized, but a more powerful but more unstable by-product, octagon (HMX, cyclotetramethylenetetranitroamine)
To prevent malicious destruction, you can ban these explosives recipe in the server with a configured to disable them.

(dnk1234567) #23

The history of Explosive is also a history of Chemistry.

The ancient Chinese(about 10th century) invented the black gunpowder and used it in the war as bombs and cannons.The “TNT” in MineCraft is just a gunpowder box with six paper sides.
You can design its recipe as shapeless craft.Costing 1 sulfur powder,2 KNO3 powders and 3 carbon(or charcoal) powders.

Ammonium nitrate(NH4NO3) was first prepared in 1659.It is used as explosive.It also be known as charge of firecrackers in China several years ago.The mechanism of explosion is:
It is also used in the early preparation of laughing gas(N2O).
If you don’t want to get a large inflated gas,you should heat it carefully.

The Mercury fulminate(Hg(ONC)2) was invented in 1799.And it was used as Primer in 1814.Also,it is the first one.It can be prepared by the reaction of mercury nitrate(Hg(NO3)2) with ethanol in excess nitric acid.Just in mixer or chemical reactor.
You can add pinch of this powder in GT6’s recipes of detonators.

The glycerol trinitrate was invented in 1846 Then Nobel improved the Nitroglycerin(Glycerol trinitrate) in 1862.It works well in bullet as one part of smokeless gunpowder(1884).From then on,the modern rifles are widely used.Also it is used in mines as Explosive which GT6 have added it.It needs 1 mol glycerol and 3 mol nitric acid.Be careful!You need to complete reaction in cooling environment if you don’t want to fly in the sky.:wink:

And TNT(2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene) was invented in 1863.We need 1 mol toluene,3 mol nitric acid and acidic environment.In GT5u,we use these materials(Gelled toluene,sulfuric acid and nitric acid) to make TNT in chemical reactors.It is so useful in bomb and other explosives.And it is so stable that even happen nothing when a bullet shot it.

The Hexagon(1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-triazinaneit,also cyclonite or RDX) was discovered in 1899.It is mainly used in mIlitary and can be used in modern bullet or shells as Launch Charge or warheads of missiles.But its most famous usage is C-4 bomb.It needs Urotropine and fuming nitric acid.Just mix them together(maybe mixer or reactor,I’m not sure) and crystallize it,then filtrate it out.

HMX(1,3,5,7-Tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane,also octogen) is a explosive that beyond RDX and it was discovered and separated in 1941.It may be produced by nitration of hexamine in the presence of acetic anhydride, paraformaldehyde and ammonium nitrate.It seems a complex reaction that a improved reactor is needed.Also making it become expensive.So it is mainly used in warheads of missiles and anti-tank weapons.Because they need a small but powerful explosive.

Octanitrocubane(ONC) is a future explosive that is thought to have 20–25% greater performance than HMX.It was discovered in 1999.Its synthesis is so long and difficult that you need to master Organic Chemistry skilfully.So it is difficult to add recipe in current GT6’s machine system.

But the most powerful explosive is here(maybe).In 2017,The Nanjing University of Science and Technology(南京理工大学) have successfully synthetise the Total Nitrogen Anionic Salt.The explosive energy of this material may be 3-10 times that of TNT explosive.The results were published in the Journal Science.Its decomposition temperature is 116.8 ℃.And materials are m-CPBA,[Fe(Gly)2],and so on.(I want to add a link to its page,but I can’t do it now because my bad network or browser)It may be a good explosive in the future,and its recipe maybe simple and easy to add in GT6’s machine or system.:wink:

Whether in GT6 or Greg’s independent game,these explosive are so dangerous in server if they can come true one day by official or players’ mod.So a config about explosive is necessary.

Also,@MR.CHEN,I’m curious if you’re a chemistry student at a university.:wink:

(Gregorius Techneticies) #24

This reminds me, I should definitely make sure that Recipes in my Game can work with mol, m³ and kg when being registered internally, that will then autoconvert everything required for a Recipe into mol based on Density, and I can more easily optimize chemical Reactions to work with even the tiniest of sample sizes.

And yes I will likely measure everything in Atom-Count multiplied by Avogadro Constant aka mol but divided by 5040 for more precision, when it comes to internal code. People will most likely see Volume and Weight being displayed unless they happen to “know” Chemistry.

(Mr.CHEN) #25
As mentioned earlier, a report of pentazole anion synthesis in Nanjing University of Technology.
Setting a unit substance to equal mole is easy to balance in chemical reactions, but it also causes some other problems…
Today, I looked at various polymers added to GT5U, among which polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), styrene butadiene rubber (SBR), polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) are used to make cable insulation over EV - GT6 obviously does not need to be because it already exists. Perhaps they have other uses, such as PVC, which is often used to make pipes. Polystyrene (PS) is used in GT5 to make wetware biocircuits - not a big problem if GT6 wants to be added as well. PTFE has been discussed before. Polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) - glue? Isn’t slimeball + water cheaper and more convenient?
For the previous synthesis of epichlorohydrin, allyl chloride can be obtained by reaction of allyl chloride, water, chlorine and sodium hydroxide (if hypochlorite is not wanted), allyl chloride is obtained by chlorination of propylene.
As for how graphene is produced… Like GT5U, glue a layer of graphite?

(dnk1234567) #26

Thank you for your supplement to the previous paper links.
Making graphene with tape deserves a Nobel Prize.In 2010,the English scientist AndreGeim and the Russia scientist Konstantin Novoselov won the Nobel Prize in Physics because they found graphene.They just use tapes.Or,more scientifically, micromechanical peeling.:wink:

(Mr.CHEN) #27

If you want the vanilla TNT to be a “real” TNT, there’s a way to make the vanilla gunpowder useful:gunpowder barrel, which is made by wood barrel + string + gunpowder, is similar to the vanilla TNT, but less powerful.

(dnk1234567) #28

The gunpowder barrel has already been added by GT5u.Although it is a little useless.I think Gregtech6 can add some rock layers that have high hardness.So you have to use the bombs to dig holes effectively.Especially when you don’t have the advanced tools.

(Mr.CHEN) #29

I think the production of the vanilla TNT can be changed as follows: toluene + sulfuric acid + nitric acid =mixer= TNT dust, TNT dust + string + paper =press= TNT stick, 16 TNT stick + 1 string =boxinator= 1 vanilla TNT
If coal tar can be produced by pyrolysis oven in the future, the production of aromatic hydrocarbons will not be a problem. :wink:

(Donzil Zenovka) #30

The problem I see with this however is that it’s a long process line for something that in my case is obsolete once I make a decent pick. What do you guys use TNT for?

(Samuel Kloss) #31

Nothing, i haven’t even crafted it since 1.6.4

(Donzil Zenovka) #32

Another use if you have hydaulicraft installed, is the creation of compressed iron.

Wikipedia states that nitroglycerine is used in hydraulic fracturing for producing oil and gas from shale. Perhaps a hydraulic fracturing machine could be placed on oil shale, consume TNT and produce oil/gas while removing oilshale blocks, kind of like a water pump but for shale.

I would guess that ic2’s mining drill code could act a little like that.

(Mr.CHEN) #33

Wait, I just found one thing: hydrogen peroxide is cannot obtainable, and it has been added to some chemical reaction formulations. In reality, hydrogen peroxide can be obtained by the reaction of sodium/potassium persulfate with sulfuric acid, or by the reaction of 2-ethylanthraquinone with hydrogen catalyzed by palladium to 2-ethylanthrahydroquinone, which is then oxidized back to 2-ethylanthraquinone and hydrogen peroxide (like the GT++). 2-ethylanthraquinone can be obtained by Friedel-Crafts acylation of phthalic anhydride with ethylbenzene.
It can also be obtained by the reaction of sodium peroxide with water, but it must be at low temperature, otherwise the heat released from the reaction will cause the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide.

(dnk1234567) #34

2-ethylanthraquinone catalytic cycle is a common method for preparing hydrogen peroxide on an industrial scale.
But such a large oxidized fused ring compound seems to be somewhat difficult to synthesize.(Until now, its production method has only Friedel-Crafts reaction of phthalic anhydride with ethylbenzene.)
Also you need to pay attention to the reaction yield.In the game,the reactor is still rough and many reaction conditions and post-treatments are difficult to carry out.(Such as Chromatographic separation method or other reaction environment)

Also,You can make Disulfuric acid by electrolysis of sulfuric acid.Then let the water to react with it.This process can get H2O2.

The reaction of peroxide with water at low temperature is a laboratory preparation method.The peroxide of the active metal does not seem to be easily prepared or stored, it seems to be somewhat expensive.

By the way,I have a small organic chemistry problem,I want to ask you about it.@Mr.CHEN

(Mr.CHEN) #35

Sodium peroxide can be obtained by burning sodium, if you want to use sodium as fuel…
Phthalic anhydride can be obtained by oxidation of o-xylene or naphthalene, which is not a big problem.
I don’t want to “过柱子” (column chromatography), which is usually used for laboratory synthesis rather than large-scale industrial production, and the chromatographic column will be very troublesome if it is dried carelessly…
The structure of X should be like this. It’s an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compound.
DDQ is a highly active oxidant, usually used for Dehydrogenation to synthesize α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds, and the reaction mechanism is not clear to me…

(dnk1234567) #36

First of all, thank you very much for taking the time to answer my question.In the part you have answered, we all think the same, and the answer should be the same,too.@Mr.CHEN
I will show a possible reaction mechanism that I personally wrote to you, and I remembered it at three in the morning.

(Sorry, I took the photo at night because I only have time at night.If the photo is not clear, please let me repost.)

(Gregorius Techneticies) #37

Could you cite any sources or elaborate on that one please?

(Mr.CHEN) #38

(Gregorius Techneticies) #39

That does not sound like the Process that was described in his Post.

His Process says H2SO4 + Electrolysis = H2S2O7, and then put H2S2O7 with H2O to get H2O2. I would like a Source for that process.

(Donzil Zenovka) #40

I found a paper from 1956 for a process producing Peroxydisulfuric acid (H2S2O8) via electrolysis if that’s of any use.